Тема:Organization of managerial accounting in JSC «»Milland»»»,»
1. ESSENCE AND VALUE OF MANAGERIAL
.1 Definition of managerial accounting
.2 Subject of managerial accounting2. FUNCTIONS AND METHODS OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING
.1 Functions of managerial accounting
2.2 Methods of managerial accounting
.3 Objects of managerial accounting3. FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING IN JSC «MILLAND»
.1 General characteristic and main indicators of activity of JSC «Milland»
.2 The analysis of efficiency of the organization of managerial accounting in JSC «Milland» and its influence on adoption of administrative decisions
.3 Ways of improvement of the organization of managerial accounting to JSC «Milland»list of the used literature
the conditions of the developing market relations in our country the enterprise became legally and economically independent. Effective management of a production activity of the enterprise more and more depends on level of information support of its separate divisions and services.the few organizations have thus the put accounting that information containing in it was suitable for operational management and the analysis.practice shows, the enterprises having difficult production structure, are in great need in the operational economic and financial information, helping to optimize expenses and financial results, to make reasonable administrative decisions. Unfortunately, decisions made by the management on development and the organization of production don’t locate the corresponding calculations and, as a rule, have intuitive character.necessary for operational management of the enterprise contains in system of management accounting which consider as one of the new and perspective directions of accounting practice.the most important, a basis of management accounting is collection of information about expenses of the organization and calculation. Domestic practice deeply worked the questions connected with calculation. Rich theoretical and practical experience in area of a standard method of the accounting of expenses and the calculation which is so similar to standardcost system in management accounting is saved up.purpose of this term paper is studying of process of managerial accounting in Kazakhstan and identification of tasks of this process.this purpose it is necessary to solve the following problems:
. To open essence of management accounting, its methods and objects.
. To allocate the principles and functions of management accounting.
. To study systems and components of management accounting.writing work Vakhrushin M. A. Bukhgaltersky’s works management accounting were used; Glushkov I.E. Accounting at the modern enterprises; Druri K. introduction in management accounting and the production account; Ivashkevich V. B. Bukhgaltersky management accounting; Karpova T.P. Bases of management accounting; Karpova T.I. Management accounting, etc.
Chapter 1. Essence and meaning of of managerial accounting
1.1 Definition of managerial accounting
managerial accounting administrative decision
Managerial Accounting it is not only the collection and recording of information , but its analysis and assessment in order to obtain such data , based on which you can control the organization , primarily operational . Primary accounting is one of the most important sources of information for management accounting , and the most reliable. At the same time for the implementation of the information needs of managers require data from additional sources , both internal and external.accounting is not a new phenomenon for domestic practice . Regulatory accounting, to the cost and responsibility lefts , and cost analysis division under calculation and economic elements , etc. All of these tools were part of the Soviet industrial accounting . However, the basic information that is formed in the period concerned the calculation and control costs. Furthermore, this analytical information formed in a single system of accounts that still distinguishes our management accounting . At the same time, almost no attention was paid to the production of information on presumptive income , profitability of a product , pricing policy.accounting system should provide planning and control not only costs but also revenues. Only such an approach will provide real economic effect of internal accounting .effective management of economic activities and the financial results of enterprises need to create a system of flexible , reliable and timely economic information. In these circumstances, the role and importance of accounting.of managerial accounting establishes the enterprise , taking into account the specifics of , especially those solutions or other management tasks. It combines into a single system planning, accounting and cost analysis by type , place of formation and objects of calculation , based on a normative account of full and reduced costs, methods of calculation , planning, accounting and investment analysis . Each of the components of the system should include a methodology analytical assessment of the information received from the point of view of the possibilities of use for administrative purposes.a market economy, there is an integration of management methods into a single system of management accounting .Accounting in its content and purpose is focused on the future. At the same time take into account the circumstances which may change during the planning period . Management accounting data allow to identify the areas of greatest risk , bottlenecks in the enterprise , inefficient or unprofitable products, and how to implement them .purpose of management accounting providing enterprise managers the information they need to make effective management decisions. In doing so, management accounting requirements, other than the requirements of Financial Accounting .accounting is not required for the application . His organization and methodology are not regulated by law. The decision to implement it in practice takes the leadership of the enterprise . At the same time collecting and processing information are considered appropriate if its value for control above the cost of obtaining relevant data.Accounting aims to meet the information needs of internal users company management , and for each level of control volume and the content is different.accounting data can not be disclosed and are a trade secret enterprise. Compliance with secrecy of this information applies not only to external users , but also employees of the company , not directly related to this problem .managerial accounting par with cash used natural indicators : the number of hours of raw materials , the amount of revenue , etc. Furthermore, if necessary, may use the relative parameters.Accounting in addition to consolidated performance involves grouping information by market sector, places of formation expenses,lefts , the causes and perpetrators of deviations on orders and products , etc.accounting is primarily focused on the future. The most important part of his plan is that based on available information necessarily involves the calculation of predictive values. If financial account shows «»how it was «» the management accounting «» as it should be .»»managerial accounting possible rough estimates and benchmarks for the purpose of more timely information.managerial accounting there is no strict time limits of presenting information. However , if necessary, information can be provided with any desired frequency. Deadline for submission of information in managerial accounting management unit installed directly enterprise.accounting is based on the principles of expediency, comparability , timeliness of providing information . With regard to the principle of double entry , it can be used as , and not be used .management accounting is not regulated by law , the responsibility for the correctness of reference also not provided. In other words , the cause of the prosecution can be only the managerial decisions , and not any data records., management accounting can be defined as an independent branch of the accounting organization that provides it with administrative staff information used for planning, managing, monitoring and evaluation of the organization as a whole , as well as its structural units .
1.2 Subject of managerial accounting
of management accounting is administrative information. Traditionally information of management accounting had financial character, that is it was submitted in dollars, rubles, yens or other monetary units. However recently the area of management accounting was significantly expanded addition with operational and physical (nonfinancial) information, such as quality of production, indicators of duration of process, and value judgment, as, for example, satisfaction of clients, the creative potential of employees and operational qualities of a new product.of management accounting financial and operational data on kinds of activity and the processes which are carried out in the organization; functioning of its structural divisions; products let out by it and services; clients of the organization., information of management accounting can be:
«»quantitative»» (that is connected with figures, as, for example, documentation on commodity stocks, administrative reports, etc.);
«»qualitative»» (that is information of nonfinancial character which supplements a picture, drawing attention of the management to the corresponding problems which don’t have monetary value).often qualitative factors are ignored by heads. It occurs when the data prepared as an auxiliary material for decisionmaking, indicate directly one decision. Similar practice isn’t effective as qualitative aspects of decisions are same important, as well as quantitative, and the most qualified decisions can be made only at the accounting of all available information.order that administrative information could be used effectively, it has to answer some certain criteria:
. The brevity information has to be accurate, not contain anything superfluous.
. Accuracy the user has to be sure that information doesn’t contain mistakes or admissions. Information has to be free from any jugglings.
. Efficiency information has to be ready by then when it is necessary.
. Comparability information has to be comparable on time and on departments/divisions.
. Expediency information has to be suitable for that purpose for which it is prepared.
. Profitability preparation of information shouldn’t cost more, than benefits from its use.
. Not tendentiousness information has to be prepared and presented so that it was impartial.
. Addressing information has to be brought to the executive; thus it is necessary to observe confidentiality.often heads receive information which demands additional processing. As a result, the decisions made on the basis of this information, are inexact or are accepted with delay and lose the relevance. Information can be processed before hit to the head, certain forms of providing information are thus used. Accuracy and brevity of received information allows to make decisions quickly and, as a result, increases the speed of working processes. Thus an important point is qualification of the head. As the system can’t replace personal experience and judgment.for information of management accounting is various at each hierarchical level of the organization. At operational level where raw materials or the bought details and knots are transformed to finished goods and where clients are served, information is necessary mainly for control of operations and for their improvement. This information detailed and often repeating; it is measured most often natural, instead of financial performance, and by the nature rather technological, than economic.process of movement to higher levels of the organization it is visible that middle managers carry out monitoring of works and make the decisions concerning financial and material resources, production, services and clients. They can receive information of management accounting much less often, and information will be more aggregated and submitted in financial performance. Managers use this information as the instrument of expeditious diagnostics; she can warn them about existence of such aspects of daily activity which differ from the expected. Information can be used also for improvement of planning and adoption of more successful decisions.heads belonging to the highest echelons of organizational management, receive total information of management accounting on economic operations and the events occurring at the level of the certain employee, the client and division. They use this information for justification of the decisions having longterm consequences for the organization (adoption of strategic decisions).
Chapter 2. Functions and methods of managerial accounting
.1 Functions of managerial accounting
and economic activity of the enterprise within management accounting finds reflection in the reporting formed on structural divisions, the responsibility lefts, types or groups of production, to budget articles. Besides, the reporting as a whole on the enterprise with generalization of results of work of the enterprise for a certain reporting period is formed.concrete contents, forms and types of the internal administrative reporting depend on organizational structure of the enterprise, types of productions, a target orientation and other factors.can be both longterm (strategic), and shortterm (tactical). Longterm planning considers enterprise activity for the period of threefive years and more. In its framework strategy of development of the enterprise on prospect is developed: possible objects of capital investments, increase in capacities, gain of sales markets, etc. Management accounting provides information for decisionmaking on longterm prospect on such questions: what types of production are more favorable to production and sale how to build price policy, what estimated profitability of capital investments in this or that object (rationality of investments), etc.term planning (for up to one year) assumes development of budgets and estimates as a whole on the enterprise, and also in a section of its structural divisions with breakdown on quarters, months, days. Within management accounting procedure of formation of budgets is established, development of shortterm plans by all divisions of the enterprise is coordinated.information necessary for management, has to be systematized on certain signs. Besides the general directions of collecting and information interpretation in management accounting it is necessary to form also target flows of information collected and systematized on concrete administrative decisions. So, for example, at development of the administrative decision on production of this or that product information on possible costs for production and realization full and variables, demand for this product gathers on the market, the average prices on necessary raw materials and materials, cover amounts on product unit, etc.of any enterprise at elaboration of strategy and policy of management are guided by data of the accounting of the expenses reflecting use by the enterprise of all types of resources in the course of activity. In this regard expenses are one of the main objects of management accounting. The special attention of system of management accounting is directed on reflection of dynamics of behavior of expenses of various resources depending on such factors as increase or reduction of sales volumes, product range change, etc. Besides, much attention is paid to the accounting of expenses on the responsibility lefts.control of use of all types of resources of the enterprise the operational analysis of activity of each left of responsibility on the basis of which «»narrow»» places in production and realization come to light is made. Received information is provided to linear managers for adoption of timely administrative decisions.management accounting much attention is paid to the accounting of deviations of the actual indicators of work from planned or standard. The method of the factorial analysis, i.e. division of all arisen deviations for the reasons which have caused their emergence is thus used.plans not always are strictly set standard of activity. At a deviation of the actual results from planned they can be specified or be reconsidered if the preliminary analysis shows unattainability of any indicators. This way of management is called as management by exception. After specification of indicators measures of correcting action for reduction of the actual results in compliance with the planned are taken. Thus dynamism and flexibility of administrative process is provided.of calculation of product cost and definition of financial result depend on a look and branch accessory of the enterprise, the production technology and other factors. It is known that the financial result of activity of the enterprise consists of various components: the income from production and realization of production, property delivery in rent, sales of not used economic means, percent on deposits to securities of other enterprises and the organizations, etc. So, in a case when the enterprise lets out some types of production, the positive result from production and sale of one production can be shaded by a loss from another. Same concerns also activity of divisions of the enterprise .means of information formed in management accounting, and also development of budgets and estimates accurate coordination of actions of managers on systematization of the tasks facing the enterprise, and achievement of ultimate goals of business is made for different levels of management. Thus action of the principle of linear management is provided.accounting of the enterprise is focused first of all on the future. Its purpose is formation of information which would allow to make the administrative decisions providing not only good results in the reporting period, but also stable development of the enterprise in the future. Thus, development of actions for increase of efficiency of financial and economic activity of the enterprise both from the point of view of more rational use of resources, and regarding expansion of sales markets, development of new productions, etc. is necessary. For information support and an effect assessment from these actions in management accounting a number of methods is used. So, analysis of «»expensevolumeprofit»» widely used in management accounting gives the chance to track interrelation between such characteristics, as expenses, the volume and profit, i.e. to define impact which changes in expenses, the goods price, volume of its production and the nomenclature of letout goods have on size got from realization of goods of profit, and also for an assessment of change of one of these factors or several factors together.
2.2 Methods of managerial accounting
main method of the solution of a task is the analysis of expenses and creation of a cost management system. «»Expenses exist not in order that to count them. They exist that to reduce them»» Tayichi It (the founder of the Toyota production system directed on total decrease in operational expenses in the organization). From this position it is necessary to consider a cost management system.and creation of a cost management system:
. Collecting all possible information on expenses at the enterprise cost (the prices of resources, compensation rates, etc.) and operational (account coefficients, standards of expenses of time, the characteristic of the performed work) business characteristics. All these data arrive in system of management accounting by means of socalled primary documents. In them the fact of the performed work and quantity of the used resources are fixed. Primary documents are filled in on places of emergence of expenses. Data on expenses can gather manually or with use of information technologies. Certainly, more perfect form of data collection assumes use of software products of processing.
. Group of expenses according to the chosen classification.
. Procedure of allocation of costs. Consists of three stages:1st gets out object of the accounting of expenses;2nd selection and accumulation of the expenses relating to this object of the account;3rd gets out a method of transferring of expenses of auxiliary services on production divisions.of allocation of costs:of base and principles of allocation of costs;of formats of primary forms of account about expenses;of a technique of filling of primary forms of account;of a technique of processing of primary forms of account, allowing to distribute expenses between types of products, objects of the account and kinds of activity;of formats of administrative reports on expenses.
. Identification of important and controlled expenses.
. Detailed studying of each item of expenditure.
. Choice of a method of calculation of prime cost.
. Analysis. Consideration of possibility of decrease in expenses. Analysis of possibility of reduction of influence of adverse factors. Definition of the periods and the reasons for which there are sharp changes:analysis of «»expensevolumeprofit»» (CVP analysis) process of combination of information on behavior of expenses with information on the income from realization for the purpose of planning of the income, expenses and profits for various levels of volume;if the analysis the type of the analysis investigating effect of change in parameter on results. In other words whatif shows the analysis as all parameters of the project (the budget or the plan) change at change of the key. It can be production price, sales volume, output, a salary of the personnel, a rate of taxes, etc. Quality of carrying out whatif of the analysis depends on model of the project used for this purpose. It has to be full, precisely reflect interrelations and use acceptable estimates. If the model full and precisely reflects interrelations of power, expenses and the revenue, then the remained question is an accuracy of used data. Specialists in planning test models by a variation of key estimates. The sensitivity analysis is for this purpose used;sensitivity analysis the analysis of effect of change of parameter on the decision, instead of on result. In other words it is process of a selective variation of key estimates of the budget or the plan. He allows to identify estimates which are especially critical for the decisions which are based on this model. For example the labor necessary for production of each product, serves as important parameter in the course of drawing up the preliminary budget. Little changes in this parameter involve considerable changes in a profit indicator.reasonable classification of expenses is of great importance for the correct organization of the accounting of expenses. Within management accounting of expense share on category depending on what administrative problem should be solved:
. Classification of expenses for calculation of prime cost of made production, estimation of cost of stocks and the got profit:and expired. Entering expenses those means, resources which were acquired, are available and, as expected, have to bring in the income in the future (in a balance asset stocks of materials, stocks in a work in progress, stocks of finished goods). Expired during the reporting period were spent and lost ability to bring in the income further. It is necessary to consider that redistribution of money isn’t an expense;and indirect. Expenses belong to straight lines (conditional and variable), directly connected with process of production of a concrete type of production and which can be included in prime cost the of groups or separate orders (materials, purchased products and semifinished products, the main salary of production workers, etc.). Expenses which can’t be carried directly on group or the separate order (maintenance costs and operation of cars and the equipment, a general production, general running and other expenses) belong to indirect (conditional and constant) expenses. These expenses include in prime cost an indirect way by the principles determined by the instruction on planning, the account and prime cost calculation at the printing enterprises;and nonproductive. Production expenses are connected with production process. Expenses on container, packing, transportation, expenses belong to extra production expenses on sale and commercial collecting;main and laid on. The main expenses are directly connected with primary factors of production (the main and auxiliary materials, a salary of the main and auxiliary workers, the electric power, etc. for the capital equipment). Laid on expenses are connected with the organization of production and management. They are caused by social and economic conditions of managing and the production organization (losses from idle times, damage of material resources, etc.).
. Classification of expenses for adoption of administrative decisions and planning:and variables. Variable (proportional) expenses can change depending on output (the main materials, a salary of production workers, the electric power for technical needs). Constant (disproportionate) expenses don’t change depending on output (a management personnel salary, the electric power,
. Classification of expenses for control and regulation:and unregulated. Adjustable expenses are subject to influence of the manager of the left of responsibility.group and allocation of costs is carried out depending on that is considered object of the account. Expenses are grouped in a place of their emergence, carriers of expenses, types of expenses and the responsibility lefts:
. In an emergence place. Expenses are grouped in productions, shops, sites and other structural divisions of the enterprise on which planning, rationing and the account is carried out. Such group of expenses is necessary for control of overall performance of structural divisions and the enterprise as a whole. And also for distribution of laid on expenses between separate types of production at calculation of product cost (works, services).
. On carriers. Carriers of expenses call types of production (works, services) the enterprises intended to realization. This group is necessary for determination of prime cost of a unit of production (works, services).
. By types of expenses. Necessary condition for total control of expenses. This classification of expenses is in essence defined by hl. 25 RK Oil Company: material inputs, depreciation charges, expenses on compensation, other expenses. Allows the enterprise to calculate structure of prime cost of made production a percentage ratio of separate elements of prime cost in a total cost of expenses for production (reserves on its decrease).
. On the responsibility lefts. The responsibility left structural division of the organization at the head of which there is the manager controlling expenses, the income and the means invested in this segment of business by administration (for example, plant shop). Irrespective of the size of structural division in management accounting allocate four types of the lefts of responsibility:left of expenses his head possesses the smallest administrative powers, therefore, bears the minimum responsibility for the received results. He is responsible only for production expenses. The system of management accounting is aimed only at measurement and fixing of expenses on an entrance to the left, i.e. rationing, planning and the accounting of costs of production is organized. Results of activity of the left (the volume of the made production, the rendered services, the performed works) aren’t considered;left of the income the manager is responsible for obtaining the income (receipts), but doesn’t bear responsibility for expenses (department of wholesales of trade organization, distribution department in publishing house, department of placement of borrowed funds in bank). Problem of management accounting fixing of results of activity of the left of responsibility at the exit;profit left the head is responsible as for expenses, and the income of the division, makes decisions on quantity of consumed resources and the size of expected revenue. Management accounting has to provide information on the cost of expenses on an entrance to the left, expenses in the left and the end results at the exit. The left purpose receiving the maximum profit by an optimum combination of parameters of put resources, output and the price;left of investments the manager controls the income and expenses, watches efficiency of use of the invested means (own investment decisions).
2.3 Objects of managerial accounting
of management is process of impact on object or management process for the purpose of the organization and is coordinate activity of people for achievement of maximum efficiency of production. Management realizes influence regarding management by means of planning, the organization, stimulation and control coordinating. Such functions are carried out by management accounting, forming the system which answers the purposes and problems of management.there are no accurate definitions of a subject of management accounting. Authors while are limited to a statement of understanding of essence of accounting in general and administrative in particular. Meanwhile systems change and methods of control over enterprise activity, respectively change procedures and the content of management accounting. Especially it concerns modeling of the accounting of expenses and the income at the enterprises with different organizational structure, influences of changing external factors (inflation, industry restructuring, etc.). From there are changes in the list of objects and subjects of management.science theory about management forms the concept and about a subject of management accounting. As subject of management accounting in a general view set of objects in the course of all cycle of production management acts. Its numerous objects which can be united in two groups open the maintenance of a subject:
the production resources providing expedient work of people in the course of economic activity of the enterprise;
economic processes and their results making in total a production activity of the enterprise.part of production resources are:
fixed assets it is means of labor (cars, the equipment, production buildings, etc.), their state and use;
intangible assets objects of a longterm investment (a right of use of the earth, standards, licenses, trademarks etc.),
material resources the objects of the labor intended for processing in the course of production by means of means of labor.resources in management accounting are presented by production stocks in enterprise warehouses, and storerooms of shops and on sites, warehouses of production department and in the course of their movement but a stage of a production cycle to finished goods warehouse. They include raw materials as a product of extracting industries, agriculture; the materials which have undergone preliminary processing both at the enterprise, and on others (semifinished products preparations, forgings, castings, details, knots, etc.); the mass of live work which the enterprise at present, use of a manpower in the course of expedient activity and result of work has.following kinds of activity belong to the second group of objects of management accounting;
* supplying and procuring activity acquisition storage, ensuring production with raw material resources, auxiliary materials and the production equipment with the spare parts intended for its contents and repair, the marketing activity connected with supplying processes;
* a production activity the processes caused by the production technology of production, including main and auxiliary operations; operations on improvement let out and development of new products;
* financial and marketing activity market researches and operations on formation of a sales market of production; directly marketing operations, including packing»» transportation and other types of works; the operations promoting growth of sales volume, since advertising of a product and finishing establishment of direct connections with consumers, products quality control;
* organizational activity creation of organizational structure of the enterprise, articulation from system of the enterprise of functional departments, services, shops, sites; the organization of information system at the enterprise with a straight line and feedback meeting the requirements of internal communications between the structural divisions, different levels of the management, corresponding to functions of planning, control, an assessment of implementation of the plan, stimulation; operations of coordinating of actions of the internal performers directed on performance of a main objective of the enterprise. Other group of objects of management accounting can be chosen, but anyway it has to answered main objectives of management.
Chapter 3. Features of the organization of managerial accounting in JSC «Milland»
3.1 General characteristic and main indicators of activity of JSC «Milland»
Milland is founded in 2002. The jointstock company is an organizational form of association of shareholders. It accumulates the capital by release in the circulation of securities stocks. The joint stock company possesses the status of the legal entity. Its establishment requires the minimum of authorized capital distributed on certain number of actions. Property of society means from sale of shares in the form of an open subscription make, the income etc. Shareholders bear responsibility according to joint stock company obligations within the contribution (equity stake).supreme body of joint stock company is meeting of shareholders, executive body board, control body audit commission. Members of society have the right for management of society by means of vote by the principle one action one voice. However usually preference shares don’t grant a vote at meeting of shareholders. The annual publication in the press of such main financial performance of activity of society in a year, as profit, losses, dividends, etc. is obligatory.joint stock company as an organizational form possesses in comparison with other types of the enterprises certain advantages:
unlimited validity period;
possibility of attraction of additional investments by a share issue;
relative simplicity of the circulation of stocks in money at an exit from society in comparison with opportunity to receive the share at an exit from other societies; existence of the fulfilled mechanism of functioning on the basis of the jointstock legislation which has established in world practice;
possibility of the quotation at stock exchanges of the securities issued by joint stock company, and their free transition from one person to another;
existence of the considerable capital that reduces risk of shareholders.joint stock companies are inherent also certain shortcomings:
existence of a problem of coordination of interests of management of joint stock company and shareholders;
lack of interest at the persons who are working at the enterprise and not owning actions, in increase of labor productivity and other indicators of efficiency;
insufficient flexibility, efficiency and maneuverability, conservatism in management.JSC Milland there is a division which is engaged in production and production of dairy products.repair group is engaged in repair of cars and the equipment.of activity of joint stock company is trade and purchasing and production economic activity. The main activities are:
production of dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, sour cream, oil, weight cottage cheese);
production of cheese a raw;
implementation in accordance with the established procedure intermediary and trade and purchasing activity, etc.
Table 1. Assessment of profitability of the organization of 20102012.
Indicatoryears201020112012Return on assets (assets)37,5%39,3%22,7%Return on fixed assets59,9%58,5%38,1%Return on current assets41%41,5%61,9%Return on capital and reserves7,5%8,4%30,3%Return on longterm liabilities41,9%41,7%40,6%Return on shortterm liabilities50,5%49,9%89,7%return on sales18,1%29,9%25,3%Notes: complete by financial statement of JSC MillandIndicators of business activity characterize results and efficiency of the current activity of the economic subject. The financial condition of the organization is in direct dependence on that, how fast investments made in assets, turn into real money. Duration of finding of means in a turn is defined by cumulative influence of a number of multidirectional factors of external and internal character. Dependence of speed of a turn on the applied accounting policies, the created structure of assets can be an example., the main characteristics and indicators of activity of JSC Milland that allows to pass to directly analysis of the organization of management accounting at this enterprise are considered.
.2 The analysis of efficiency of the organization of managerial accounting in JSC «Milland» and its influence on adoption of administrative decisions
the organization of management accounting understand system of conditions and elements of creation of registration process for the purpose of obtaining reliable and timely information about economic activity of the organization, control of rational use of production resources and managements of a production activity. Responsibility for the organization of management accounting in the organizations is born by heads of the organizations.JSC Milland management accounting is organized according to normative documents and to make the administrative decision, the main documents are documents on current assets of the organization.assets are defined as part of the capital the organizations enclosed in its current assets. The basic purpose of current assets consists in ensuring continuous and rhythmical process of production and the address. The economic essence of current assets is that they completely transfer the cost to again created product, a used one production cycle.organization of current assets includes: definition of structure and structure of current assets, establishment of requirement of the organization in them, definition of sources of formation, the order and maneuvering by current assets. A part of current assets are: the current assets including production stocks (raw materials, materials, fuel, spare parts for repair); work in progress and the currencies including receivables.assessment of a financial condition of the organization will be incomplete without analysis of financial stability. It is necessary to understand security of its stocks and expenses as financial stability of the organization sources of their formation.of the analysis of financial stability is the assessment of degree of independence of loan sources of financing. It is necessary to answer questions: as far as the organization is independent from the financial point of view, level of this independence grows or decreases and whether the condition of its assets and liabilities answers problems of its financial and economic activity,stability is characterized by system of absolute and relative measures. The most generalizing indicator of financial stability is surplus or a lack of sources of means for formation of stocks and expenses.
Table 2. The analysis of absolute measures of financial stability of JSC Milland for 2012 (thousand tg. )
Indicatorsbeginning of yearEnding of yearchangesFixed assets47734405368Current assets527971691890availability CAS24542627173Longterm loans50324702330CAS+DK74867329157Shortterm loans494965931644Inventory and costs199632951299Type of financial stabilityNormally stableNotes: complete by financial statement of JSC MillandIndicators of business activity characterize results and efficiency of the current activity of the economic subject. The financial condition of the organization is in direct dependence on that, how fast investments made in assets, turn into real money. Duration of finding of means in a turn is defined by cumulative influence of a number of multidirectional factors of external and internal character.of such absolute measure as noncurrent assets for the end of fiscal year in comparison with the beginning of year indicator current assets opposite decreased by 368 thousand increased by 1890 thousand. The indicator existence of the own current assets (OCA) on the end of the year made 2627 thousand that on 173тыс. above, than for the beginning of year. The indicator the longterm credits and loans decreased by 330 thousand and the shortterm credits and loans increased by 1644 thousand indicator stocks and expenses grew by 1299 thousand. The threedimensional indicator of a financial state satisfies to criteria of stability: in 2008 financial condition of JSC Milland normal the steady. Therefore, the financial condition of the organization is stable.
3. Comparison of the income and expenses in JSC Milland (one thousand tg. )
IndicatorsYearsChanges 2008г. к201020112012201020111 . Revenue (net) from sale of goods, production, works, services2315922175329809821108052 . Prime cost of the sold goods, production, works, services23001(21607)(34458)(57459)(12851)3 . Gross profit158568(1478)(1636)(2041)4 . Profit (loss) on sales158568(1478)(1636)(2041)5 . Other income36720730(337)(177)6. Other costs(460)(604)(267)1933377. EBIT65171(1715)(1780)(1886)8. Net income (loss)3094(1715)(1745)(1809)Notes: complete by financial statement of JSC MillandManagement account in JSC Milland as a whole is kept effectively, such conclusion can be drawn from calculations of the abovestated table.the organization of management accounting understand system of conditions and elements of creation of registration process for the purpose of obtaining reliable and timely information about economic activity of the organization, control of rational use of production resources and managements of a production activity. Responsibility for the organization of management accounting in the organizations is born by heads of the organizations.JSC Milland there is a number of the principles according to which internal reports are formed and provided:
the report has to be address and concrete;
the report has to contain the operational information useful to adoption of administrative decisions;
by drawing up the report it is necessary to consider psychological features and level of readiness of the specific manager for which the report is intended. It is necessary to know wishes of the manager concerning data representation form (for example, tabular or graphic), structure of indicators;
the report shouldn’t be overloaded, information in it has to be systematized;
costs of preparation of the internal reporting shouldn’t exceed economic effect of its use (the principle of profitability);
the report has to be «»prepared»», that is has to facilitate decisionmaking.realization of the last principle follows:
to supplement the actual indicators planned, and also data of the previous periods. Such report allows to see succession of events in time, to their loudspeaker, and also to reveal essential deviations from the plan for subsequent «»work»» with them (identification of the reasons of deviations, responsible, adoption of the relevant decisions);
to supplement forms of account with text explanations (for example, about the reasons of deviations);
to carry out information classification in forms of account (for example, in ascending order or decrease of indicators, favorable/adverse changes, etc.);
to carry out calculation of the corresponding analytical indicators, for example, the marginal income, profitability, profitability, deviations in physical units and percent etc.creation at the enterprise of system of the internal reporting it is necessary to define first of all the list of information which is necessary for managers of various structural links, and also degree of efficiency and a regularity of its granting. For this purpose special examination of an enterprise management system is, as a rule, conducted, powers of managers of various levels of management on decisionmaking and their information requirements come to light.
.3 Ways of improvement of the organization of managerial accounting to JSC «Milland»
Management accounting this intra firm operational management of financial and economic activity directed on satisfaction of information needs of managers of firm not necessarily of highest, and the average level who solve problems at the large enterprise. It is reached by comparison of the actual results with settlement. Management accounting forms also enough extensive information for providing planned administrative decisions, and not only current, but also strategically perspective therefore it can’t be reduced only to account system.will consider necessary conditions for creation, allocation of the lefts of responsibility within the considered JSC Milland enterprise. Among them it is possible to designate:
formation of set of the lefts of responsibility by which a certain part of shared responsibility for expenses, the income or profit, for creation of system of the lefts of responsibility that each bottom level (left) was accountable to the corresponding top is delegated;
definition of a circle of responsibility. It shouldn’t repeat functional structure of management of the enterprise which exists for other purposes; it can be used only partially and where it is expedient.intra firm management in JSC Milland well adjusted information of feedback has essential value. Experience of introduction of management accounting in the organization testifies to need of system approach to obtaining this information. System approach to the organization of information of feedback assumes at least three system units: accounts of management accounting, intra firm reporting, document flow plan.will consider some accounting records on accounts of management accounting.accounts of management accounting are allocated in the isolated system having internal balance, usually with the zero sum of balance, it is necessary to allocate accounts of the independent accounting of expenses in system of accounts of JSC Milland of the accounting (financial) account.business accounts applied in isolated system to the management analytical accounting as experience of introduction of management accounting testifies:the complete information structure, allowing to receive internal administrative information with reliability and the accuracy inherent in accounting, but behind closed doors, replacing accounting in intra factory management;to accumulate information on accounts of analytical management accounting in real time with reflection of deviations from the planned and budgetary indicators that increases efficiency of control and management, and to reflect along with actual planned data by accounting records that increases internal discipline of planning, excludes unreasonable changes of budgets and estimates of the lefts of responsibility;to generalize quickly significant indicators for the top management and is ordered to provide information on all levels of management.
accounting is necessary for normal functioning and enterprise development. With its help heads and managers define the main direction of development of firm taking into account material sources of its providing and market demand. Management accounting allows to consider correctly all internal and external factors directed by specific goals of development of the enterprise and ways of their achievement, provides an agreement between separate structural divisions of the enterprise, allows to minimize expenses and opens all possible additional sources of resources in firm.of systems of management accounting, and also use and interpretation of information made by these systems, are decisive for success of the production and service organizations in the technological environment today’s global competitive and full of calls.major moment when determining essence of management accounting, is analyticity of information. As a part of management accounting information gathers, grouped, identified, studied for the most accurate and reliable reflection of results of activity of structural divisions and definition of share in receiving profit of the enterprise.of accounting management accounting are expenses (current and capital) the enterprise and its separate structural divisions the responsibility lefts; results of economic activity both all enterprise, and separate lefts of responsibility; the internal pricing assuming use of the transfer prices; budgeting and internal reporting.of management accounting is the production activity of the lefts of responsibility (organization segments) therefore sometimes management accounting call the account on the responsibility lefts, or the segmentary account.methods used in accounting management accounting, are very various: elements of a method of the accounting financial account (accounts and double record, inventory and documentation, balance generalization and reporting); index method (applied in statistics); receptions of the economic analysis (in particular, pofaktorny analysis); mathematical methods. All abovementioned methods are integrated into uniform system and used for business management.principles of management accounting treat: continuity of activity of the enterprise; use uniform for planning and the accounting (planned and registration) units of measure; estimation of results of activity of divisions of the enterprise; continuity and repeated use of primary and interim information for management; formation of indicators of the internal reporting as bases of communication communications between management levels; application of the budgetary (budget) method of management by expenses, finance, commercial activity; completeness and the analyticity providing exhaustive information on objects of the account; the frequency reflecting production and commercial cycles of the enterprise, established by accounting policies. Set of the listed principles provides effectiveness of system of management accounting, but doesn’t unify registration process.understanding of essence of management accounting allows to reveal dependence of the functions which are carried out by this type of the account, on management functions. Management functions usually consist from: planning, control, estimates, directly organizational work, internal information communications and stimulation.
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